It is very easy to understand the authenticity, that is, whether to distinguish a piece of porcelain is genuine, this is the first step of the identification work. For those who don't know how to do it, the authenticity, imitations, and fakes of porcelain are easily confused. For example, a large number of antique porcelains appearing on the market during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, without careful identification and analysis, will certainly be a little bit worse and lose a thousand miles. The ceramic characteristics of each period and each kiln mouth must be distinguished from true and false. It is obviously not enough to know the true characteristics. It is necessary to know the characteristics and laws of the counterfeit goods in order to distinguish between right and wrong. It is said that we must know ourselves and know each other to win. Improve the ability to distinguish between authenticity and falsehood, as well as the comparison of counterfeit and counterfeit artifacts.
Only those who know the history of ceramics' craftsmanship are likely to be keenly aware of the subtle flaws in modern imitations in the practice of identification, and remain invincible forever. Practice has proved that ceramic identification can be said to be rumored. It is sometimes easy and sometimes difficult to identify true and false. Generally speaking, it is difficult to see fake. If you look at the fake, you can make a clear conclusion by grasping one. If you look at the truth, you should be cautious and comprehensive. Try to grasp every detail and eliminate all possible suspected points before you can make a positive conclusion.
The general feature of antique pseudo-ceramics is the identification of "the other" in the work. The following is a summary of the experiences that the ancient ceramics connoisseurs summed up:
(1) The carcass is not too heavy or too light. This is because the imitations are not the same as the tires used in the real products. Modern fake ancient ceramics, using computer and other latest scientific and technological means to analyze the tires, glaze composition, formula, the burning atmosphere of ancient artifacts, the pattern of ancient kiln, etc., the antiques in the tire, glaze, appearance can be a bit messy It is not easy to distinguish between true and false. However, the appraiser can break through other aspects of truth and counterfeit, mainly the reflection of people and social and cultural factors in different eras on artifacts.
(2) Fetal quality and enamel are generally too fine. The social productivity, production methods, etc. in the imitation of ancient artifacts are all better than those produced by imitations, and the counterfeiters are afraid that they will not be refined or inaccurate. When processing the glaze, the production technology conditions of the glaze are fully utilized. It is often too fine to be fine.
(3) The shape loses the antiquities style. This is the most important point. As we all know, the socio-cultural differences in philosophy, aesthetics, science and technology, etc. at different times and in different societies are enormous and cannot be overlapped, that is, the ancient Greek philosophers call the famous saying: People cannot enter the same river. Therefore, no matter how carefully the antique works are studied, the characteristics of the antique model are still inevitably branded by the counterfeiters, leaving clues to the discerning.
(4) The outline lines are stiff. This is also an important breakthrough in the identification of counterfeits. Because the imitation is "imitation", any master has a blueprint in his mind when he is making it. The production is restricted by the blueprint, and he can't be free. He can only do his best to "depend on the gourd painting." Obviously, the outlines of the various parts on the imitation goods are carefully made, and it must appear rigid and rigid, far less than the smooth and natural nature. This is the commonality of all imitations, and it is an intrinsic and insurmountable feature of imitations.
(5) No smooth feeling after use. Most of the ceramic authentic products have been used for a long time to play, and the watch has a natural, not too strong and not too weak, moderately smooth feeling (except for the "stock goods" of the Qing court): the Qing Dynasty official kiln burns every year. A large number of porcelains were transported into the Imperial Palace and kept in the warehouse. Some of them have never been used. Some of these "library goods" have a history of nearly three hundred years, but they have no use characteristics and are "old new devices". Antique fake porcelain, the production time is not long, play with less, of course, there is no smooth feeling of the above ancient porcelain. Some antique fake porcelains are old work, but their smooth and old sense is not very natural, and some people are traces.
(6) Associated with the fifth level is that the glaze of the imitation glaze is generally too strong (some people call this phenomenon "fire thorn"), not delicate, relatively loose. The white glaze is too white, and the white is pan-blue instead of pan-green.
(7) Some characteristics of modeling and ornamentation are too strong and excessive, and it looks extremely unnatural. This is because the imitations are mostly imitated and mastered. Many of the counterfeiters have mastered many of the features of the simulated products. Those who have made some false works in the past are experts and experts in the research and production of ceramics. However, because they want to deceive the world, especially those who are swayed by experts, they carefully make a number of features when they are copied. The less clever counterfeiters even deliberately highlight certain features, which form an over-exciting phenomenon of general imitations. The person left the basis for identification.
(8) The color is too fresh, such as white color is too white, red color is too red, green color is too green, green ink is green, etc., there is no real time characteristic and true color meaning.
(9) The paintings of the imitations are unnatural, the pens are restrained, the lines are not smooth, and some of the poor imitations are rough. Because of the imitation of the imitation, of course, the tattoo pattern must be deliberately drawn, and it must be very cautious, and the paintings are also rigid and unnatural. Of course, there have always been many masters of painting who participated in the imitation. Because of their high level, they can understand the true paintings, and they are really embarrassing. The imitation paintings are also very similar, but after all, they cannot fully express the artistic charm of the real products.
(10) The calligraphy is weak, the font is not stretched naturally, and some of the borders are obviously irregular, and the thickness of the lines is uneven. Because calligraphy is as individual as painting, it is inevitable to imitate the artistic personality of the imitation.
The ancient ceramics appraisers for the old ways of counterfeiters, also summed up some methods to see through the organs, such as blue and white porcelain to light: counterfeiters use chlorofluoric acid wiper table, then use ash (preferably flue-cured tobacco) Gray) rubbing, the gloss of the new porcelain surface will be greatly reduced, and the traces of smoke yellow characteristic of porcelain are used for a long time. If you have doubts about this, you can use a little soapy water or gasoline to wipe it off, and you can see the camouflage.
For the soil rust to forge the earthenware: Some new antique porcelain, in order to sell a good price, is made like the unearthed, called soil rust, the first method is to mix the protein in the old soil, painted in the new Above the device, a little bit of time can generate some soil rust marks on the table; the second is to use the soil in the ancient tomb to incorporate some copper powder, apply it to the table, and bake it in the furnace at about 700 Â°C. Yellowish spots. The rust made by these two methods adheres firmly and is not easy to remove. However, this kind of stain is too new, too much, and it is unnatural. If you look closely, you can see it.
As a gold wire: As we already know, the opening of the glaze is not compatible with the glaze, and the expansion coefficient is different during the cooling process, or the glazed horn is changed after the long-term aging. Generally, it is difficult for the imitation master to master the technique of firing the open glaze, and the fake opening method is used: the imitation porcelain has been fired, and the temperature of the ware is still high when the furnace is opened, and the salt water is poured into the body. An open glaze can be produced. After the object is cooled, the coarse grain is first dyed with ink to form an iron wire, and then the fine film is dyed with tea to form a gold wire. This kind of gold wire iron wire is washed with water and it is now in its original condition.
In the past, antique porcelains were not all new, and there were those who added old porcelain to the color. (Color porcelain is more expensive than white porcelain, and there is a higher price than no price). This kind of fake method is a new color. In addition, the pseudo-methods include complex kiln, lottery, deglazing, glaze, filling, old tire filling, old new items, old items, sets of mouths, bottoms, ground grinding, ear removal, Going to flow, removing handles, making up colors, making up paintings, etc. All these are fake, although they are ingenious, there are traces that cannot be concealed. If you carefully try to figure out and observe carefully, you will not easily conclude, and will eventually falsify the truth. Â
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