Glass is a non-all inorganic material. It is an inorganic thermoplastic polymer in structure. It can be formed when it is higher than 650 oc. It has the characteristics of transparency, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and pressure resistance after cooling. Glass has a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than steel and is a poor conductor of electricity and heat. It is a viable amorphous material.
Specific gravity: 2.46~2.5 Linear expansion coefficient: 9~10x10-6/oc(~350oc) Specific heat: 0.2(0o~50oc), practical surface tensile strength: 500kgf/cm2 Glass name originated from Tang, which means glass raw material plus The lead oxide is called in crystal glass. The proportion of lead oxide added varies with the customary definitions of each country. Generally speaking, when the proportion of lead oxide is more than 24%, the transmittance and refractive index of glass are good, and they are also heavy and soft. Suitable for firing into exquisite glass artwork. When talking about crystal wares in Europe and the United States, it means using such crystal glass materials, and the price is not expensive compared with ordinary glass. Man-made glass "glazed" is glass, but it is very crystal-clear with the addition of lead. Some people call it crystal. If you enjoy it with pure artistic vision, of course, there is also a collection value. If you participate in the natural crystal natural glass energy or the time of growth is very different. This is a must understand. Like Austria or Italy, high-priced crystal glass glazed wine bottles, or crystal glazed with ornaments, cute little animals, Buddhist crystal lotus glaze, crystal chandeliers, almost all crystal glass glaze! Magnetic field energy. Crystal glass is actually made of natural crystal glass, which is often heard of lead glass. Adding lead in glass can increase the refractive index of glass, and also reduce the hardness to make it easy to honed; the beautiful crystal cup that is generally sold is also lead glass.
The difference between crystal and glass
Crystal and glass look very similar, but they are two completely different materials. The main differences are as follows:
First, the material is different
Crystal is a crystal of silica, and glass is only a molten state mixture containing silica.
Second, the effect is different
The glass only has a decorative effect, and the crystal has a piezoelectric effect in addition to the decorative effect, and has a special health effect.
Third, the price is different
The unit price of crystal is several times or even several times higher than that of glass.
Fourth, the physical properties are different
1. Crystal is a crystal with high hardness (Mohs grade 7), while the hardness of glass is low (Mohs 5.5). Crystal can mark on the glass, but not vice versa.
2, crystal is a crystal body, good thermal conductivity, with the tip of the tongue touch the cold feeling. The glass is warm.
3, with a polarizer to distinguish, crystal can transmit light, while glass can not.
We can easily distinguish them based on the different physical properties of crystal and glass.
Five, different processing techniques
The glass can be hot-casted, saving materials and labor, and low cost.
Crystal is a crystal, which cannot be reversed after heating and melting, so it cannot be cast by hot casting, and only cold working such as cutting or grinding can be used. It costs a lot of money and costs.
The crystal has high hardness and is not easy to wear. The glass has a low hardness and is easy to rub.
The crystal has good stability and will not change color when used for a long time. The glass is easy to turn yellow.
Glass is different from crystal (Western crystal glass)
A. There is a clear distinction in the history books.
There is a similar record in the Diamond Sutra. Among all the Buddhist scriptures in China, the first five categories of Buddhism Seven Treasures are recognized, namely gold, silver, glaze, enamel, agate, and the latter two are said to be crystal, some say amber, glass, and so on. This shows that glaze is a recognized treasure of Buddhism; glaze is very different from crystal and glass.
B, different chemical composition
The main components of natural crystal, glass and glass are all silica.
Contemporary national-level authoritative monograph "Chinese ancient glass research" records: the ancient Egyptian "FÃ©on" (that is, the ancestor of Western crystal glass) the proportion of silica 92% (not transparent) -99%, China's Zhou Dynasty glass The ratio of silica is only slightly more than 90% (transparent). The difference of 9% is the biggest difference between glass and crystal.
C, detailed explanation of ingredients
The ancient glaze was made by adding glazed stone to the glaze. The glazed stone is a colored crystal material. The main component should be silica. The glaze is a natural and artificial refining. After the ancient formula, you can change the structure and physical properties of the crystal, and there are obvious differences in shape, color and transparency.
The medicine jade of the Ming Dynasty should have some differences in the formula of the glaze, so the color of the jade in the Ming Dynasty changed little and was not transparent.
The grade of glaze actually depends on the raw materials and preparation method of the glaze. This is the secret of non-transmission since ancient times. It is because of the existence of the glazed mother that the ancient Chinese glass and crystal and even the western crystal glass "Faance" "There is a 9% difference in composition.
The so-called glass lucky, safe, and have a great relationship with the glass. Â
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